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April

1st April

Royal Air Force Formed, Man who served In Ebrington Its first Commander

Hugh Trenchard was born in Somerset in 1873. In 1893 he served in India with the Royal Scots Fusiliers where in a time of relative peace he was able to indulge in his hobby of rifle shooting. He also established a polo team, becoming an acquaintance of Winston Churchill. In the autumn of 1910, he was posted to Ebrington Barracks with the Royal Scots Fusiliers. While in the city he took part in local hunts and playing polo in the field in the Waterside.

In 1912 he took up flying and at the outbreak of war he was appointed O.C. of the military wing of the Royal Flying Corps. In 1918 he put together a plan for the merger of the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Service, establishing the Royal Air Force.

During the First World War the Royal Flying Corps, the Royal Naval Air Service and the Royal Air Force lost nine thousand three hundred and seventy-eight men and over seven thousand were wounded. In total almost one million flying hours were logged and seven thousand tons of bombs were dropped on enemy positions.

Cargo Ship Sunk Off Larne

While on her maiden voyage on Italian Government service from the Clyde to the Mediterranean with coal, the 4,000 ton Ardglass was torpedoed off the County Antrim coast by UB-31 with a loss of six crew. The German submarine took part in thirteen patrols and sank thirty-five merchant ships with a loss of 50,258 tons. The submarine was broken up in 1922.

Two Local Men lost in The Great War

Robert Frazer served as a private in the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers.

Francis Meehan served as a private in the Black Watch.
Orbituary Notice in Local Paper

Thomas Doherty served as a private in the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers. He was killed on 1st April 1917. In 1918 on the first anniversary of his death, his family had the following lines inserted in a local paper.

‘O Mary, by that precious love
That Jesus’ Heart bore Thee,
Plead for him that his home above
Without that Heart may be.’

Death of A War Poet, Isaac Rosenberg

Isaac Rosenberg was born in Bristol, son of a Jewish family who had emigrated from Latvia. He attended Slade School of Fine Art in London and also began to write poetry. As a poet he composed pieces which were critical of war. Unable to find a permanent job Isaac Rosenberg enlisted in the army in October 1915. At this time, critical of the conflict, he wrote,’ I never joined the army for patriotic reasons. Nothing can justify war. I suppose we all must fight to get the trouble over.’ Isaac Rosenberg was one of thousands who were killed in the Spring Offensive on the Western Front. One of his most famous poems is ‘Break of Day in The Trenches.’

The darkness crumbles away.
It is the same old druid Time as ever,
Only a living thing leaps in my hand,
A queer sardonic rat,
As I pulled the parapet’s poppy
To stick behind my ear.
Droll rat, they would shoot you if they knew
Your cosmopolitan sympathies.
Now you have touched this English hand
You will do the same to a German
Soon, no doubt, it will be your pleasure
To cross the sleeping green between.
It seems you inwardly grin as you pass
Strong eyes, fine limbs, haughty athletes,
Less chanced than for your life,
Bonds to the whims of murder,
Sprawled in the bowels of the earth,
The torn fields of France.
What do you see in our eyes
At the shrieking iron and flame
Hurled through still heavens?
What quaver-what heart aghast?
Poppies whose roots are in man’s veins
Drop, and are ever dropping;
But mine in my ear is safe—
Just a little white with the dust.

3rd April

East Tyrone By-Election, Irish Nationalist Party Victory

This was held due to the resignation of William Redmond in order to contest the Waterford by-election. This had become vacant following the death of his father, John Redmond. The Irish Nationalist Party gained almost 60% of the votes to Sinn Fein’s 40%. It appeared that the Irish Nationalist Party was regaining ground from Sinn Fein across the country.

A Local man Lost in The Great War

Charles Coy served as a private in the Lancashire Fusiliers.

Orbituary in Local Newspaper

David Thomas Black was a sergeant in the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers and he was killed on 3rd April 1916. On the second anniversary of his death in 1918 his family placed the following lines in a local newspaper.

‘Days of sadness still come over us,
Tears in silence often flow;
For memories keeps you ever near us,
Though you died two years ago.

4th April

A Local man Lost in The Great War

Bernard Doolan served as a rifleman in the Royal Irish Rifles.

5th April

German Spring Offensive Grinds to a Halt

British and Australian forces at Amiens held the line and brought this German offensive to a halt. The Second Battle of Somme comes to an end as Germany calls off ‘Operation Michael.’

8th April

A local Man Lost in The Great War

Thomas Clinton served as a sapper in the Royal Engineers.

9th April

German Attempt to Reach the Channel Ports

The Germans launched a second offensive. ‘Operation Georgetti,’ to reach the Channel ports. They came up against elements of the Portuguese army who abandoned their positions.

Debate in Commons about Conscription in Ireland

In the House of Commons, the Irish Parliamentary Party declared its intention’ to resist by any means in our power any attempt to bring into force a system of compulsory service.’ Thomas Lundon of The Irish Parliamentary Party stated,’ If conscription is introduced I will tell young Irishmen that it will be better if you die on your own doorsteps than on the plains of France or Belgium.’

In the debate Lloyd George said, ‘If conscription is introduced, you will have another battle front in Ireland.’ Veteran M.P. William O’Brien said, ‘This is a declaration of war against Ireland.’ As the debate was going on, Dublin Castle received a letter from a contact in Kildare referring to the proposition of imposing conscription as ‘this mad step.’

Two Local Men Lost in the Great War

John Brady served as Company Sergeant Major. in the Worcestershire Regiment.

Robert A. Thomson served as a lance sergeant in the Highland Light Infantry.

Orbitary in Local Paper

George Albert Simpson served as a wheel gunner in the Royal Garrison Artillery and he was killed on 9th April 1917. In 1918 his sister and brother-in-law of 5 Kennedy Street placed the following lines in a local paper.

‘He never shunned his country’s call,
But gladly gave his life-his all;
He died, the helpless to defend,
A British soldier’s noble end,’

Also, in 1918 his brother and sister-in-law of 12 Alexandra Place placed the following lines in a local paper.

‘Duty called and he was there
To do his bit and take his share;
His heart was good, his spirit brave,
His resting place a soldier’s grave.’

George Albert Simpson served as a wheel gunner in the Royal Garrison Artillery and he was killed on 9th April 1917. In 1918 his sister and brother-in-law of 5 Kennedy Street placed the following lines in a local paper.

‘He never shunned his country’s call,
But gladly gave his life-his all;
He died, the helpless to defend,
A British soldier’s noble end,’

Also, in 1918 his brother and sister-in-law of 12 Alexandra Place placed the following lines in a local paper.

‘Duty called and he was there
To do his bit and take his share;
His heart was good, his spirit brave,
His resting place a soldier’s grave.’

10th April

Battle of Messines

Four divisions of the German 4th Army broke through British lines and captured the town of Messines. On 11th November 1998 at the Island of Ireland Peace Park the peace tower was unveiled by President Mary McAleese with Queen Elizabeth and King Albert II in attendance. A unique aspect of the tower is that a shaft of light illuminates the inside only on the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month, when the armistice began.

11th April

Dublin Mayor Seeks President Wilson’s Support over Conscription

Dublin’s Lord Mayor Lawrence O’Neill wrote to President Wilson, seeking American support against the imposition of conscription in Ireland. He wrote,’ In the fourth year of a war ostensibly begun for the defence of small nations, a law conscribing the manhood of Ireland has been passed in defiance of the wishes of our people.’

Rumours in Ireland Over Conscription

Rumours spread across the country. There were stories told that Gurkha troops would be sent to force men to enlist and that Irish cities would be bombed. In preparation of any eventuality, across the country men were taught First Aid, the use of explosives and plans were also put in place to blow up bridges. Caves were located for hiding ammunition and supplies.

British Face Defeat on The Western Front, Special Order of The Day

BY FIELD MARSHAL SIR DOUGLAS HAIG TO ALL RANKS IN THE BRITISH ARMY IN FRANCE AND FLANDERS

‘Three weeks ago, the enemy began his terrific attacks against us on a fifty-mile front. His objects are to separate us from the French, and to take the Channel ports and destroy the British Army.

In spite of throwing already 106 divisions into the battle and enduring the most reckless sacrifice of human life, he has as yet made little progress towards his goals.

We owe this to the determined fighting and self-sacrifice of our troops. Words fail me to express the admiration which I feel for the splendid resistance offered by all ranks of our army under the most trying circumstances.

Many amongst us are now tired. To those I say that Victory will belong to the side which holds out the longest. The French army is moving rapidly and in great force to our support.

There is no other course open to us but to fight it out. Every position must be held to the last man; there must be no retirement. With our backs to the wall and believing in the justice of our cause each one of us must fight on to the end. The safety of our homes and the Freedom of mankind alike depend upon the conduct of each one of us at this critical moment.’.

The Cabinet decided to raise the age limit of compulsory service to fifty-one.

Royal Navy Cruiser Attacked Off Malin Head

H.M.S. King Alfred was a 14,000 ton cruiser which was attacked by UB -86 off Malin Head with the loss of one crew member. The King Alfred was repaired and returned to service. UB-86 took part in five patrols and sank four merchant ships and damaged two other ships.

Merchant Ship Sunk Off Inistrahull

The Myrtle Branch was sailing from Chile with a general cargo and ores when it was attacked and sunk off Inistrahull by UB-73 with the loss of fifteen crew including the captain. One of those lost was Chief Engineer Frederick Forbes whose address was given as Laurel Cottage, Magherafelt.
In six patrols UB-73 sank eight merchant ships, of 18,000 tons and one warship. The submarine surrendered in 1918.

A Local Man Lost in the Great War

Private Cecil Harkness, aged twenty, served in the Royal Irish Fusiliers. He was from Bovevagh near Dungiven.

12th April

The German Plot

Joseph Dowling had served in the Connaught Rangers and was a prisoner of war in Germany. He became a member of the Irish Brigade and was put ashore from a German U-boat in County Clare. Dowling was transferred to London where he was questioned by among others Basil Thomson, the Director of Naval Intelligence. He was sentenced to penal servitude and he was finally released in 1924. Joseph Dowling died in London in 1932 and his remains were returned to Ireland for burial in Glasnevin Cemetery. Many republican groups were in attendance.

Fear of a German Invasion

Around the coast of Ireland there was fear of a German invasion. On many occasions people walking the shoreline in the early morning came upon bodies washed up following some tragedy at sea. In many graveyards there remain a section referred to as ‘the stranger’s plot,’ where an unidentified body would be laid to rest.

Dublin Castle had issued a warning to those living near the coast as to what action to take in the event of a German invasion. All people were to move immediately to twenty miles inland with all of their livestock. All crops were to be destroyed by fire or by some other method.

In Cliffoney in County Sligo the parish priest Father Michael O’Fanagan issued the following directive to his male parishioners. ‘Men of Cliffoney, the Germans may be here any time now. You need not worry as the Royal Irish Constabulary has the situation well in hand. We have twenty policemen in Cliffoney, Grange and Drumcliff. They will see that your crops are all destroyed and then with their twenty rifles they will keep back the German army and navy.’

German Attack on the Midlands

In this attack on the Midlands of England most of the bombs fell in the countryside. However, seven people were killed, twenty injured and over £11,000 of damage caused.

A local Man Lost in The Great War

Albert E. Bowden served as a sergeant in the Royal Garrison Artillery.

13th April

Volunteer Attack on Royal Irish Constabulary Barracks

In the ‘Bureau of Military History, 1913-21,’ Thomas McEllistrim gave a statement of his activities as Lieutenant in the Ballymacelligot Company of Volunteers. He had been arrested in May 1916 and was detained in Frongoch Internment Camp, being released in August 1916.

‘A surprise attack to seize weapons was planned on the police barracks at Gortatlea with nine volunteers involved. A guard was placed at the railway barracks and as the volunteers approached the barracks they were armed with three shotguns, one revolver and one baton’.

He continued,

’ We went to the barracks immediately and walked to the door in single file. When I reached the barrack door I lifted the latch as we had information that the barrack door was seldom locked at that hour. The door was locked and I had to knock. An R.I.C. man came to the door and asked,’ Who is There? I said, ‘It is me.’ He then asked, ‘Who are you?’ I said in a friendly tone,’ It is me, come on and open the door.’ He did open it and as he did I dashed past him. The constable in the kitchen, when he saw me enter with mask and gun, made a dash for the inner room. He had no gun on him. I followed and he tried to close the room door on me. I pushed the door open and we got a body hold of each other in the room, which was now in complete darkness as the door had closed behind us. In the struggle that followed we both fell to the ground. Cronin one of our men immediately came to my assistance and when he pressed the point of his double-barrelled gun on the constable’s chest there was no further resistance by him.’

We had the barracks captured in less than three minutes and our two R.I.C. prisoners were placed standing face to the wall with their hands up. A colleague and myself proceeded to collect the arms in the barrack room and had taken two rifles off a rack and placed them on the table when a shot rang out. I rushed to the kitchen and saw Browne, who had been doing guard with a shotgun over the prisoners, reel and fall flat on the floor. In less than a minute the barrack door was covered with blood. Browne was shot through the temple and the bullet came right out at back of his head. We now found ourselves in a serious situation. Here we were with the barracks captured and our two prisoners inside. We knew that the bullet which hit Browne had come from the outside and we quickly decided that we would have to fight our way out of the barracks not knowing what we had to meet on the outside. We thought first that we had been surrounded, that perhaps our planned attack had been given away. We thought too that perhaps the police or military had arrived at the station by accident, as the train from Cork to Tralee had steamed into the station as we entered the barracks.

One of our attacking party suggested to me,’ Will we shoot these two prisoners before leaving? I replied,’ How can we shoot them with their hands up? ‘We lifted up Browne, carrying himself and his gun through the door, firing two shots as we went into the darkness. There was no response from outside until we were lifting Browne’s body over the railing which surrounded the barracks, then another volley of fire came in our direction. We were compelled to leave Browne’s body where it was and rush for shelter. I believe Browne was dead in five minutes. That ended our first attempted attack on Gortatlea Barracks.’

Protests about Conscription, a Newspaper Editorial

In an article in the Irish Independent, it stated, ‘If we judge rightly the determination of the people as evinced in their protests, the Rising of 1916 is but a trifling incident compared with what is to come. It may take not one but many weeks to end it.’

A local Man Loses His Life in The First World War

Patrick McGonigle served as a private in the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers.

14th April

Anti-Conscription Rally in Belfast

This was held outside the City Hall and was attended by about three thousand people from across the religious and political divide.

Anti-Conscription Rally in County Limerick, R.I.C. Attacked and Open Fire

A crowd estimated at about ten thousand assembled to protest against conscription. The Royal Irish Constabulary came under attack and in response opened fire on the crowd. Later County Inspector Yates reported,’ The whole county and city of Limerick are seething with hatred against the government for passing conscription. This is egged on by Sinn Feiners whose movement has swallowed up all others.’

A Local man Lost in The Great War

Bernard S. Brown served as a captain in the Royal Army Medical Corps.

Orbituary Notice in Local Paper

Thomas Friel served as a private in the Royal Irish Regiment and he was killed on 15th April 1916. On the second anniversary of his death in 1918 his family placed the following lines.

‘Too far away thy grave to see,
But not far to think of thee.’

17th April

Orbituary Notice in Local Paper

William Graham served as a private in the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers and he was killed on 17th April 1916. On the second anniversary of his death in 1918 his family placed the following lines in a local paper.

‘Days of sadness still come o’er us,
Silent tears do often flow,
But memory keeps you ever near us,
Though you died two years ago.
Only those who have lost are able to tell
The pain at the heart at not saying farewell’

18th April

The Military Service Bill Becomes Law, Conscription for Ireland

The Compulsory Military Service Act passed the Commons with three hundred and one votes for and one hundred and three votes against. In the debate in the House of Commons, William O’Brien a long-time Member of Parliament, later described by Griffith as ‘one of Parnell’s lieutenants,’ declared, ‘This passing has proved the final bankruptcy of parliamentary methods, like every crisis in the last fifty years, it will be resolved in Ireland.’

Also, in the Commons Captain D.D. Sheehan, M.P. for Cork said,’ I have served in France, have had two sons killed and a daughter a nurse seriously injured. If conscription is introduced, the impact in the field will be disastrous. I anticipate bloodshed and seas of trouble, with nationalists of every hue including myself, resisting by force if necessary.’

The passing of this act was opposed by many sections of nationalist opinion. At a meeting of Roman Catholic bishops in Maynooth they declared that conscription was an oppressive and unjust law.

The Day When Britain Lost Ireland

With the passing of the conscription legislation, the historian A.J.P. Taylor declared,’ This was the decisive moment when Britain lost Ireland.’ No member of Dublin Castle was consulted on this matter. Field Marshal Lord French said that with a slight increase in troop levels in Ireland, disorder could be avoided. Brigadier General Byrne of the R.I.C. said that conscription in Ireland would unite all Catholics and Nationalists and that there would be civil disturbances. The head of the British army in Ireland, Major General Bryan Mahon on the issue declared,’ You might as well conscript Germans.’

Anti-Conscription Meeting in Mansion House

Representatives from across the nationalist world took part in this conference. This ordered that defence committees were to be set up in each parish and that on the following Sunday people would be encouraged to take an anti-conscription pledge. Plans had also been muted to establish a new political party, but this failed to materialise.

The outcome at local level across Ireland was mixed. Sinn Fein and Volunteers were suspicious of developments and personal rivalries rose to the surface. In many local parishes the priests dominated the community with many of the older priests in support of the Irish party while many of the younger priests were in support of Sinn Fein. In some parishes rival committees were formed while in other parishes no committees were set up.

Anti-Conscription Rally in Tralee

A local newspaper in County Kerry reported, ‘This was the largest and most representative meeting ever held in Tralee an the most united in determination to fulfil the object for which it was called. The outstanding feature of the meeting was the attendance and cooperation of people who were hitherto diametrically opposed to each other in national principles; Sinn Feiners, Redmondites, Pro-British etc., ‘

20th April

Labour Party Holds Dublin Conference

The Labour Party held a conference in the Mansion House in Dublin. It was attended by about one thousand five hundred delegates. In a poster it addressed firstly to women. ‘Irish women, it is you who will suffer most by this foreign war. It is the sons you reared at your bosom that will be sent to be mangled by shot and torn by shell’.

The poster went on to address the farmers of Ireland. It asked them not to export crops as the country was facing rising prices and they declared that there was a danger of famine. The poster was published by the National Executive of the Irish Trades Union and the Labour Party. There were ten signatures including Thomas Cassidy of Derry.

The conference in its pledge of resistance declared, ‘We deny the right of the British government to enforce compulsory military service on this country. We pledge ourselves solemnly to one another to resist conscription by the most effective means at our disposal.’

Strike in Laxey, Isle of Man

Ireland was not the only place in the British Isles which was facing industrial action by workers. Employees of the Great Laxey Mine went on strike seeking higher wages. The Ministry of Munitions ordered them to return to work.

21st April

Death of the German Ace, the Red Baron

By 1918 Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen was seen as a national hero in Germany and he was respected by his enemies. He was shot down and killed in a dogfight over the Somme. He was credited with shooting down eighty plane and the deaths of over seventy pilots. On the day of his death he had earlier shot down two planes.

Anti-Conscription Rally in Limerick

A crowd estimated to be about twenty thousand gathered in Limerick to protest against conscription.

A Local Man Lost in the Great War

W.R. Brabrook served as a sergeant in the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers.

Orbituary in Local Paper

William Hamilton had served as a private In the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers and was killed on 2nd April 1917.In 1918 his family from Upper Violet Street placed the following lines in a local paper.

‘Gone to Jesus, gone to glory,
Every wave of trouble over,
He is now with other loved ones
On that peaceful, happy shore.’

22nd April

Allied Raids on Channel Ports

The Allies attacked the ports of Ostend and Zeebruge.

23rd April

General Strike in Ireland over Conscription

A general strike was called in Ireland to oppose conscription. The country ground to a stand-still with work stopping in the railways, in the docks and factories and no newspapers were published.

A rally was held in Ballycastle which was attended by bands and people from across the religious and political divide.

Newspaper Reports on General Strike

In the Dublin Telegraph it was reported that’ it was not possible to buy even a box of matches.’ Electricity in Dublin was suspended from six o’clock in the morning until six o’clock in the evening. However, government buildings such as courthouses were open as were many banks. The Freeman’s Journal reported, ’In Dublin the thirsty could not get a drink even though they were more than willing to pay more than the war rates.’

Signing of Anti-Conscription Pledges

Many workers across Ireland went to halls to sign this document. The Evening Telegraph reported on these events.’ A feature of all the gatherings was the presence side by side of people who a short time ago were ranged in opposite camps. Political, social and religious distinctions were now obliterated by the threat of compulsory military service. This no longer keeps people apart.’

The Anti-Conscription Pledge

It read,’ Denying the right of the British Government to enforce compulsory service in this country, we pledge ourselves solemnly to one another to resist conscription by the most effective means at our disposal.’

A Local Man Lost in the Great War

Hazlett Morrison served as a major in the Machine Gun Corps.

24th April

Funeral of the Red Baron

Baron von Richthofen was given a military funeral by the British and one wreath from the British read,’ To our gallant and worthy foe.’

Newspapers Report on Anti – Conscription Day of Action

The Evening Telegraph commented on the General Strike.’ In the whole record of Ireland’s connection with England there has been no demonstration so unanimous, so effective, so dramatic and so spontaneous as the sudden cessation of work yesterday throughout the country as a protest against conscription.’

The Times said, ‘While lamenting that the strike demonstrated Nationalist Ireland’s apathy and ignorance concerning the events which are convulsing Europe, we report however that it was a well organised strike that showed the strength of the anti-conscription movement.’

The Irish Times declared,’ Ultimately the strike was the voice of labour, not the voice of religion or politics, which yesterday stopped the wheels of industry in Dublin. 23rd April 1918 will be remembered as the day when Irish Labour found itself.’

In Limerick the radical newspaper Bottom Dog was first published in December 1917 and ran for forty-eight issues, On the General Strike, it stated,’ It is our hope that labour will use its revealed strength to the full, not alone to beat conscription ideas of the capitalists but also to remedy the many ills imposed on it by the same capitalist class.’

On the general strike Freeman’s Journal reported that ‘the response was most remarkable, with not just trade unionists downing tools but shops were shut, railway and postal services ceased and in Dublin all tram and vehicular traffic was stopped.’

Strike Action in the City

The National Union of Railwaymen in the city passed a resolution condemning the imposition of conscription in Ireland. In protest at this, railwaymen from the Unionist tradition published a letter in the Londonderry Sentinel. In the city dockers, carters and some shipyard and engineering workers came out of strike.

25th April

A Local man Lost in The Great War

Henry Devlin served as a private in the Royal Fusiliers.

26th April

A Local Man Lost in the Great War

Victor E. Gransden served as a private in the Royal Irish Rifles.

Reports from Galway, Dublin and Donegal on Influenza

It was reported in the Connacht Tribune that a Dr. Cusack told of a family where both parents and five children were seriously ill as a result of influenza. The doctor was reported as saying,’ The children were all lying in one bed and it was necessary to climb over them to give them attention. The people were very badly off.’

From Dublin Dr. Kathleen Lynn wrote,’ The ‘flu rages, I can do so little, poor children and all dying around.’ From Donegal Dr McGinley reported,’ There were many pathetic cases in all three dispensary districts, young hired boys and girls in the throes of this ‘flu dying in outhouses of farms.’

28th April

A Local Man Lost in the Great War

William J. Pollock served as a lance corporal in the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers.

Orbituary

Shortly after his death, these lines were placed by his family from Windmill Terrace in a local paper.

‘In that beautiful land on high,
Where we never shall say goodbye,
He is over the river; he is happy forever
In that beautiful land on high.’

At the crystal river’s brink Christ shall join each broken link.

A Local Man Lost in The Great War

John Treanor served as a gunner in the Royal Garrison Artillery.

29th April

German Spring Offensive, German Setbacks

After several weeks the German attack ground to a halt. This marked the end of the Battle of Lys. The Germans had logistic problems and faced successful counter-attacks by the British, the French and the Anzacs. Three British Divisions inflicted crippling losses.

A Local Man Lost in the Great War

Samuel Simpson served as a private in the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers.

30th April

Coaster Attacked and Sunk Off the Copelands

The coaster Kemlock was shelled and sunk off the County Down coast by U-86. All of the crew survived. In five patrols U-86 sank four merchant ships, total tonnage 5876 tons.

U Boat Founders off Belfast Lough

UB-85 got into difficulties as water flooded into an open hatch as it dived to evade capture. The crew of thirty-four were rescued by H.M.S. Coepsis and became prisoners of war. The German submarine was taking part in only its second patrol and had not sunk any shipping.

Open Letter to ‘Soldiers of The United States, King George

WINDSOR CASTLE, ‘Soldiers of the United States, the people of the British Isles welcome you on your way to take your stand beside the armies of many nations now fighting in the Old World the great battle for human freedom. The Allies will gain new heart and spirit in your company. I wish that I could shake the hand of each one of you and bid you God speed in your mission.’