United States Army Enters Germany
The first American troops entered Germany through Luxemburg and their first action was to take control of the Rhine bridges. An urgent task was to decommission weaponry, much of which was in
Influenza Strikes in Crumlin Road Prison
Neilus Connolly from
Prisoners write From Crumlin Prison on Influenza
By this time over one hundred prisoners were struck down with ‘flu. As a result, a portion of the prison was turned into a hospital. The governor reported that ‘there are a number of very sick men among the prisoners.’ Dan
Doctor in Wicklow applies for Leave
A doctor in the county applied for a month’s leave writing,’ The strain and overwork experienced her at present and for some time past have been most severe, and I trust it will be able to provide for the leave.’
Derry Hit by Second Wave of Influenza
A report in the Derry Journal noted that ‘the city has been touched by the second wave of influenza.’ It also reported that ‘villages had shops, restaurants and hotels closed and in
Galway Newspaper Calls on people To Be Positive
The Connacht Tribune gave a warning to its readers declaring that ‘certain states of mind encourage disease and people should keep away from panic and maintain a cheery and optimistic outlook.’
British Army Establish Base in Germany
This was set up in Cologne. The British army was based here until 1926.
President Wilson Sails for Europe
The United States President sailed for Europe, travelling on the ‘George Washington.’
Only One School Open in the Sligo Area, Brothers Struck Down in County Monaghan
A report in Freeman’s Journal spoke of an inspector’s visit to a school in the Sligo district. The inspector told the headmaster,’ Your school is the only one in the province of Connacht I have had to visit as all others are closed.’
In the village of Ballytrain south of Ballybay two farming brothers were struck down with influenza. None of the neighbours would enter their house. The brothers were taken to hospital where they later died.
At Oldcastle in
Speech in Support of Sinn Fein
In Wexford Father Mark Byrne spoke in support of Sinn Fein, declaring that the Irish Parliamentary Party was ‘arrogant ‘and that younger priests supported Sinn Fein. He went on to say,’ It seems to be characteristic of Irish political leaders that once they hold the reins of power for any considerable time they refuse to lose their grip and refuse to change their course, resent and ignore criticism until
Local Man Loses Life in the Great War
George McGarrigle served as a private in the Royal Medical Corps.
Letter to Terence McSwiney in Prison
His sister wrote to him about the election result. ‘It isn’t the men but the policy that’s winning.’
Internee in Wales Reflects on Influenza
Tadhg Barry described conditions in the prison.’ Sickness and death have scattered our little group. Richard Coleman is getting worse and it is causing anger and quiet fear among his companions. Another internee wrote,’ I wish I could vent my feelings as to happenings here, suffice to say that Dick Coleman has been anointed today and we are waiting our chance in the same atmosphere and conditions. Coleman’s people have been sent for. God grant that he may get over it for the poor fellow has gone through so much and is such a gentle going character that it is awful to anticipate his
Derry Journal Article on Influenza
The local paper expressed a view which displayed great concern about contagion. ‘Crowded places are the most prolific of all sources of infection.’
Post First World War, British Intelligence in Germany
A party of British intelligence officers began a six-week intelligence gathering visit to Germany. The authorities had felt that it was necessary to gather information on targets which had allegedly been attacked and destroyed by RAF crews. The report of their findings was startling. They found that in many instances bombing had been inaccurate and that targets had been chosen with false information.
It appeared that material damage to German infrastructure had in many instances been slight compared with the effect the bombing campaign had on German morale. Earlier in the
A Prisoner’s View from Crumlin
Timothy Brestone reflected on the political situation.’ I think we are near the end of our holiday, and I dare say the beginning of our war.’
The Social Impact of Influenza
In Claremorris County Mayo, a blind fiddler found himself in financial difficulties. Before the influenza
Fear in The Community People Refuse to Assist with Funerals
In a small village in
Electioneering in County Down
It was reported that campaigning for the election had to be curtailed ‘due to the prevailing illness, as the outbreak is diminishing attendances everywhere.’
Soldiers in Revolt on the Continent
Soldiers belonging to the Royal Artillery revolted in Le Havre, burning down accommodation buildings. They were protesting over cruel and humiliating punishments, poor working conditions and for soldiers being flogged for relatively minor offences. At this time most soldiers expected to return home and they were also annoyed that news from Britain was being censored. The unrest later spread to soldiers based in Calais.
Australian Prime Minister Reports on War Reparations
Just weeks before the beginning of the Peace Conference in Paris, the Australian Prime Minister reported back on his suggestions for war reparations by Germany. He said that Germany should pay twenty-four billion pounds and that they could and should pay one and a quarter billion pounds annually. This meant that in his estimation Germany should be paying for the war into the early 1940s. At about this time the United States declared that Germany should pay four and a half billion pounds while the French declared that Germany should pay forty-four billion pounds. The French declared that whatever the final figure
Churchill’s Speech on Ireland and Home Rule
The government is most anxious that the Irish question
United States President Arrives in France
The ‘George Washington ‘sailed into the French port of Brest. There he was met by the French Foreign minister who told him,’ We are so thankful you have come to give us the right kind of peace.’ President Wilson was fascinated by cinema and while crossing the Atlantic he spent much time watching films. His general attitude to Europe was that the old imperial powers were responsible for starting the war and he believed that he offered a new way for Europe.
The First Armistice
This ended this day and was prolonged until 17th January 1919.
Derry Pork Curers Go on Strike
These workers in the pork factories in the city went on strike and this directly affected over seventy workers. The strike was to last for over a month and was not settled until 14th January 1919.
The American President arrives In Paris
President Wilson made a triumphant procession down the Champs Elysees.
The Kaiser’s Brother-in-law Renounces His Role in Finland
Frederick Karl who had been appointed King of Finland in October 1918 renounces the title.
Voting in the Irish General Election
In the campaigning in County Kildare, Daniel Buckley referred to the Union Jack. I will not rest until every vestige of that rag is cleared out of the country.’
The Irish Parliamentary party which had been formed in 1874 by Donegal-born Isaac Butt was would be virtually annihilated. In County
Election Results, Counties Antrim, Armagh, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry, Tyrone
In these counties:
225,082 voted Unionist, 56.2%,
76,100 voted Sinn Fein,19%
44,338 voted Nationalist, 11.1%
30,304 Labour Unionist,7.6%
8,738 Independent Unionist, 2.2%
2.602 Independent Nationalist, 0.6%
659 Independent Labour, 0.2%
436 Independent, 0.1%
Results in North West
Population, 39643, electorate 39643, Sinn Fein, 46, Unionist 4797, Nationalist, 7596
Population, 41065, electorate 41065, Sinn Fein, 7003, Nationalist, 30171.
Population 41490, electorate 16894, Sinn Fein, 5787, Nationalist, 4752.
Population 46639, electorate 19276, Sinn Fein, 6712, Nationalist, 4116.
Population 40780, electorate 16736, Sinn Fein,7335, Unionist 7020, Nationalist 120.
Londonderry County North
Population 52957, electorate, 21306, Sinn Fein, 3951, Unionist 10530.
Londonderry County South
Population 46888, electorate, 21199, Sinn Fein, 3425.
Tyrone North East
Population, 47358, electorate 23023, Sinn Fein,56, Unionist, 6681, Nationalist …………. Check
Tyrone North West
Population, 47240, electorate 22182, Sinn Fein 10.442, Unionist 7606.
Population, 48067, electorate 22465, Sinn Fein, 5347, Unionist, 10,616, Independent Nationalist, 2602.
Concern at Fatalities in Castlebar
The Mayo News reported that in Castlebar ‘there are many families, particularly among the poorer classes, who have suffered considerably as a result of the epidemic, and in a few instances, they have been deprived of their breadwinners and destitution confronts them.’
Electioneering in County Mayo
It was feared here that because of the outbreak of influenza that there would be a low turnout in the forthcoming election.
Advertisement Promoting Cycling
There was an advertisement in the Irish News placed there by Dunlop Rubber Company. It declared,’ Very few of the people who have had influenza are regular cyclists. Those who bicycle regularly have been less liable to attack.’
Fear in Rural Ireland Over Influenza
It was reported that in the neighbourhood of Ballymote in County Roscommon that people living in the countryside near the town were ‘nervous about going near the town.’
‘flu Victims in Fermanagh and Tyrone Hospital and Medical Staff Overwhelmed
It was reported in the Fermanagh Times that the medical officer in the above institution in Omagh declared that ‘flu victims being admitted to the institution were exceedingly bad, requiring the care of two attendants each.’
It was reported in the same newspaper that the Guardians with responsibility for Newtownbutler and Clones were informed that ‘Dr. Fitzgerald had to get
It was reported Fermanagh Times there were references made to conditions in Newtownbutler and Clones. The Board of Guardians confirmed that’
Outbreak of influenza In Crumlin Road Gaol
Winifred Carney, President of
However, the assistant prison chaplain James Clenaghan wrote to the prison authorities to impress on them the gravity of the situation and the poor conditions of the prison. ‘I have already felt it my duty to administer the Last Sacraments to several of the men.’
Internee in Crumlin Road with Influenza
Art O’Donnell fell ill here and recalled how the first doctor to see him would stand at the door and command you to put out your tongue. This doctor was replaced by a Roman Catholic doctor and O’Donnel l said that he received a thorough investigation and he ‘was dispatched to the prison hospital having been diagnosed with having pneumonia.
James Halpin who also had flu in Crumlin
An Irish Newspaper Aware of a World Crisis and Influenza in County Mayo
The Connacht Tribune in reflecting on the outbreak in the Galway area made a reference to
Serious Rioting in Crumlin Road Prison
Prisoners barricaded the ends of three wards with bed planks and tables removed from cells and doors and gratings wrenched from walls. Prisoners took up defensive positions on the first and second floors for two reasons. Firstly, to prevent the reinstatement of normal prison discipline which had existed before the influenza outbreak, and secondly, to protect their comrade John Doran who had been brought by the prisoners from another wing.
About thirty and forty prisoners got onto the laundry
In the absence of Lord French, Edward Shortt the Chief Secretary granted John Doran political status and gave prisoners pre-influenza status. The cost of the damage to the prison amounted to three thousand pounds.
Russian Army Advances on Estonia’s Capital
The Russian army continued its advance into Estonia and was fast approaching the capital
Lisnaskea Guardians Concern over Spreading Influenza
Reported in the Fermanagh Times, the guardians decided to restrain recovering influenza victims from visiting the town.
The Last United States Ships Sail from Queenstown
In the early hours of a foggy Boxing Day, to the sound of other ships blowing horns, eleven American ships left Queenstown Harbour for the last time. They were returning to the United States by way of the Azores. The ships were the Allen, Beale, Davis, Duncan, Genesee, Kimberley, Rowan, Sampson, Stockton and Wilkes. As the ships sailed with all flags flying, they were overflown by a number of United States Flying boats.
During the First World War about two hundred United States personnel had lost their lives in the Cork area, either through accident, illness including influenza or by enemy action.
Rising in Poland
Following a patriotic speech by Ignacy Paderewski the future Polish Prime Minister, the revolution began in Poland.
County Galway Hit Again by Influenza
The county was hit by the second wave of influenza with cases reported in Spiddal, Clifden and Leanne. In Oughterard, the relieving officer of the Poor Law Union reported that ‘some people who have died from ‘flu will not be buried by the locals.’
Tragedy on Aran Islands and Clontarf
A family tragedy was reported in the Connacht Tribune
Mayo news Reports on Conditions in Asylum
The newspaper carried a story about conditions in the asylum. ‘Over one hundred patients and
Reports in The Lancet and the British Medical Journal
It was reported in the medical journal that ‘the experience of the present epidemic throws light upon the nature of many obscure cases of typhoid which occurred during the past summer and there is a likeness of influenza to typhoid fever.’
In the British Medical Journal, it was reported that at a meeting of the Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland a
Doctors in County Down and County Cork under Pressure
A doctor who served the Strangford and Killough districts said,’ I have entailed an unprecedented number of calls night and day for six weeks with the result that I am unite exhausted.’ In
Royal Navy Arrive in the Baltic
A Royal Navy squadron arrived off the capital
Inishowen Hit Badly by Influenza
A report from the Register-General’s Office stated that one of the worst places hit was Inishowen were one in four deaths in 1918 were
End of the Year, St. Vincent de Paul’s Finances
By assisting the victims of influenza across the country, it was recorded that the organisation’s spending had increased by £3360, an increase of about 10% on the previous year.
Academics View of Influenza Outbreak
Commander-in-Chief in India Reflects on The Empire
Sir Charles Munro,
Soloheadbeg Attack Planned
Members of the 3rd Tipperary Brigade under the command of Seamus Robinson met on their own initiative on an isolated farm to discuss tactics. Sean Treacy believed that the only way to establish
Dan Breen’s brother was an employee in the quarry at Soloheadbeg and he provided information that a consignment of gelignite was to moved early in the New Year from the military barracks in Tipperary to the quarry. Seamus Robinson and Sean Treacy planned the operation and agreed that they would not wait for a response from the Irish Volunteer leadership as they might not approve and there would also be a delay in having a response.
On 19th January
Conflict Set to Escalate Across Ireland In the New Year
In the 19th
On New Year’s