German leader Writes to All German Princes
Prince Max of Baden wrote to all of the German princes seeking their approval of the abdication of the Kaiser.
American Troops into Europe, Importance of Cobh
Over the previous seven
Victims of the ‘Leinster’ Disaster, Washed Up on
Isle of Man
The bodies of two women and a number of men were washed up on the shores of the Isle of Man. They could not be identified and were buried in a number of cemeteries across the island.
Isle of Man Newspaper Headlines
As victims of the sinking of the Leinster began to be washed up on the shores of the Isle of Man, newspaper headlines reflected the feelings of the
Local Men Lose His Life in the First World War
Jack M Montgomery served as a 2nd Lieutenant in the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers.
Orbitary in Local Paper
Thomas Mooney served as a rifleman in the Rifle Brigade and was killed on 1st November 1918. Shortly after his death, Jane Smith and Cassie Jervis of
‘His youthful life for King and Country gave,
He slumbers now in a soldier’s grave;
Far from the noise of shot and shell
He is gone to God in peace to dwell
Riot in Rural Village in County Limerick
A crowd had assembled in the small village of Broadford to celebrate the release from prison of three Cumann
‘The peelers in Broadford were so frightened by the magnitude of the turnout that they telephoned for
Influenza Peaks in World Capitals
Health authorities across the world estimated that influenza outbreaks had peaked in cities such as New York, Berlin, Paris and in Dublin. This however proved to be just the first wave of the outbreak. There were cases of influenza right across Ireland.
Influenza across the World
Reflecting on the world crisis with regard to influenza, the Meath Chronicle reported,’ Things have not been nearly as bad here in Ireland.’
Roman Catholic Church Calls for Prayers and For Shorter Church Services
The Archbishop of Dublin wrote to the clergy in the diocese,’ In view of the present
With increased numbers of funeral masses, the Archbishop also called for services to be curtailed. ‘As long as the present danger of infection continues, the solemn service of the church should not be prolonged by the chanting of ‘The Office of The Dead.’
Wexford Town, Trade Reduction
In the local newspaper The
Shock in Kilkenny
It was reported in the Kilkenny People that many in the town were shocked about the deaths caused by influenza and many did not want to speak of ‘the dread disease’ and its shattering effects.
Bank Staff Struck Down by Influenza
The Connacht Tribune had a column in the newspaper which highlighted the fact that among those laid up because of influenza many of those employed in local banks.
The Wealthy in Dublin, Access to Primary
In the Irish
Influenza in Dublin, Distress among the City’s Poor
Reported in the Freeman’s Journal, a spokesman for St. Vincent de Paul said,’ God only knows how the poor exist and what they suffer now during the present distress and illness’. The paper reported that there were shortages of basic commodities such as coal and milk.
Nurses Dealing with Influenza, Some Struck Down
The Irish Independent reported that in Dublin nurses had attended about three hundred and forty cases of influenza in the north side of the city. At Dublin’s Meath Hospital, only half of the usual number of nurses were available for duty.
School Closures in County Kerry and Parents Keeping Children off School
A report in the Kerryman said that many schools across the county were forced to close ‘allowing for a healthy and useful holiday at home.’ It was reported in the Kings County Chronicle that some parents in the area were keeping their children off school for fear of contracting influenza.
Social Event Cancelled in Tipperary and Local Priest castigates Parishioners
An article in the Tipperary Star reported that ‘a grand commercial ball had been deferred in homage to His Majesty ‘flu.’ Parishioners near the town were upbraided by their priest for avoiding the town. The priest said,’ You have acted foolishly in shunning the town during the outbreak. There really is no need for such extreme cautiousness.’
Meath Chronicle Reports on ‘Flu Symptoms
The newspaper stated that ‘the flu is merely an acute fever with high temperature, quick pulse and general prostration. The infection is unquestionably recognised as a tax upon personal comfort and efficiency but hardly admissible as a cause of death.’
Wexford Council Fear of Cinemas
At a meeting of the
Fear Stalks Wicklow Town
A member of the council sent an urgent memo,’ The poor are dying, the infirmary practically closed. Not a moment to be lost.’
Doctors Reports from Across Ireland
From County Down in the north to County Cork in the south, many doctors who were treating ‘flu victims were reporting that many of the victims appeared to be displaying symptoms more like to diphtheria and typhus.
Mixed Response across Ireland to the Crisis
From across the country, including the response of Inishowen Board of Guardians, some boards were displaying concern and doing their utmost to prevent the spread of the disease, while others were expressing concern at the costs being incurred and possibly being passed onto ratepayers. Some at local government level
Fall of Trieste
The City of Trieste and its environs was one of the oldest parts of the Hapsburg Monarchy. The city had been claimed by Venice, but leading citizens of Trieste petitioned King Leopold III and it became part of the Austrian Empire in 1382 and was to remain so for over five hundred years until 1918
A local Man Loses His Life in the Great War
Georg E. Dornan served as a private in the Royal Army Medical Corps
Mutiny in The German Navy
German sailors feared that they were to be sacrificed in one last attempt to defeat Britain. If the sea battle had taken place off Eastern England it would have involved about seventy ships on both sides.
A meeting was held at Kiel was attended by over ten thousand sailors, soldiers and workers. They demanded immediate reforms in what was called ‘The Fourteen Points’ and for the immediate release of sailors. The German army opened fire and seven were killed and about thirty injured.
Catholic Centre Party Enters German Government
Matthias Erzberger reluctantly entered the government of Prince Maximillian von Baden as secretary of State without Portfolio.
Death of the War Poet, Wilfred Owen
He was born in 1893 near Oswestry in Shropshire. His career was in education and he went on to be employed as a private tutor in the School of Languages in Bordeaux. In October 1915 he enlisted in the Artists’ Rifles Officers Training Corps and the following year he was commissioned into the Manchester Regiment. Wilfred Owen was wounded on several occasions and once while recovering from shell shock in a hospital in Edinburgh he came into contact with fellow war poet
Wilfred Owen was killed while taking part in the crossing of the Sambre-Oise Canal, several days before the signing of the armistice. The following day he was to be promoted to the rank of lieutenant. On 11th November in
It has been estimated that there were over
Recipient of Victoria Cross
William Amey was a lance-corporal in the Royal Warwickshire Regiment. His citation reads,’ On 4th November 1918 at Landrecies, France, when many hostile machine gun nests were missed by leading troops owing to fog,
Recipient of Victoria Cross
Adam Archibald was born in Scotland and served in the Royal Engineers. He received his medal from King George V in Buckingham Palace in May 1919. His citation reads,’ On 4th November near Ors, France, Sapper Archibald was with a party building a floating bridge across the canal. He was foremost in the work under a very heavy artillery barrage and
Kiel Sailors and Workers Unite
Following events of the previous day sailors, soldiers and workers took control of Kiel. This involved about forty thousand people. A council was established and issued ’14 Points’ and called for the release of sailors who had been arrested earlier. This was an attack against the military system. Across Germany workers’ and sailors’ councils were set up which were modelled on those in Russia in 1917. There was now the possibility of a total revolution in Germany.
Socialist Meeting in Munich
A large meeting of socialists called for the unity of socialist parties, for peace and minimum reforms.
Hapsburg Empire Surrenders to Italy.
The Armistice of Villa Giusti was signed between the two countries and came into effect the next day at 3.00 p.m. This day, the 4th
Influenza in County Armagh
The Irish Independent reported that in Lurgan it was noted that children were not as affected as adults by the outbreak of influenza.
Publication of County Kildare Newspaper Hit by Flu
Production of the Leinster Leader which was published in Nass County Kildare was halted due to an outbreak of influenza among the paper’s staff. The newspaper had to be produced and published in Dublin.
Pressure on the Health System
The Irish Independent spoke of pressure on the health system and that one outcome was a reduction on the number of primary vaccinations. In
Royal Navy Divers at Scapa Flow
Divers in the Shetlands were sent down to investigate the remains of UB-116, which had been attacked and sunk on 28th October. Divers returned to the surface with items including the submarine’s logbook.
man Loses His Life in The Great War
James O’Donnell served as a private in the Royal Irish Regiment.
Allies Conditional Acceptance of the Fourteen Points
A section of the statement reads, ‘The Allied Governments have given careful consideration to the correspondence which has passed between the President of the United States and the German government. Subject to the qualifications which follow they declare their willingness to make peace with the Government of Germany on the terms of peace laid down in the President’s address.’
German Newspaper on Events at Kiel
Reflecting on what had happened at Kiel, a north German newspaper declared,’ What happened in Kiel will spread throughout Germany. What the workers and soldiers want is not chaos, but a new order, not anarchy, but a social republic.’
a German Socialist Republic
The Independent Socialist in Germany issued a call for the establishment of a socialist republic in Germany as part of a
Article in Freeman’ Journal, the Financial Cost-A Report from the Aran Islands
Reflecting on the epidemic sweeping Ireland, the article said,’
From Inishboffin a doctor wrote to the Clifden Guardians. ‘I have found that the ‘flu has attacked about sixty families. The type here picks out the very strongest aged between twenty and fifty years old. The attacks are complicated with pleurisy, pneumonia, peritonitis. It is also particularly severe on the central nervous system. I consider it a virulent type-it is infectious.’
Political Rally Cancelled in Roscommon
It was reported in Freeman’s Journal that ‘a recruiting demonstration fell through because all the speakers were confined to bed.’
Dublin Newspaper accuses Authorities of Inaction
The Irish Times blamed the Local Government Boards and sanitary authorities across Ireland for ‘not having foreseen the epidemic and taking precautions against the
Socialist Party in Berlin Reforms Demanded
The executive of this party met in Berlin and drew up a list of demands. Among the key demands were the abdication of the Kaiser and Crown Prince and for freedom of assembly. The party newspaper said,’ We seek freedom, not terror, not
German Leader Has Influenza, Erzberger Sent to Negotiations
Matthias Erzberger, a member of the Catholic Centre Party was sent to the Forest of Compiegne to negotiate with the Allies. In addition to Max von Baden allegedly having influenza, it was thought that the Allies might find a Roman Catholic civilian more acceptable to negotiate with rather than a military man from Prussia. However, the French were unwilling to make concessions to the Germans.
Power Cuts in County Galway
It was reported in Freeman’s Journal that several men employed in the power station were off work because of influenza. The article said that ‘the town was practically in darkness for several nights owing to the men in charge of the electric power station being laid up.’
Distress in Dublin
Interviewed by the Freeman’s Journal,
Effect across Ireland in Industrial Schools
Inspectors of reformatory and industrial schools across the country declared ‘that there is a widespread and virulent outbreak of influenza which rages throughout the entire world and is exacting a heavy toll among the population of every country inflicting a high rate of mortality.’
Strabane Urban District Council critical of Inactivity by The Board of Guardians
It was reported in the Derry Journal that Strabane Urban District Council were critical of the Board of Guardians with regard to the treatment of the sick and the poor in the area. They declared that ‘no hospital is being provided for urgent cases despite the fact that an epidemic is raging. The fever hospital is available and all the Guardians have to do is to provide the nurses. Three recent deaths in the town are down to neglect, one poor boy had no other bedding than straw and rags. ’Strabane Urban District decided to request an urgent meeting with the Board of Guardians to discuss the matter.
Negotiations Begin between Allies and Germany
These began in Foch’s railway carriage at Compiegne.
Calls for the Kaiser to Abdicate
As Germany faced defeat, the German politician Friedrich Ebert demanded that his party had a greater say in the cabinet,
Maximilian von Baden Meets Political Leaders
Von Baden met with the leaders of Germany’s political parties to discuss the political crisis. He informed them that he intended to go to meet the Kaiser in Spa to encourage him to abdicate, possibly in favour of the Kaiser’s second son to become
Bavarian King flees The Country, Mass Demonstrations
King Ludwig III fled from Bavaria and ‘The People’s Stare of Bavaria ‘was declared. At a large meeting, people called for ‘bread and peace,’ an eight hour day and the elimination of dynasties.
Newspaper Report, Germans in Full Retreat
It an article in the Londonderry Sentinel from the Press Association their war correspondent telegraphed yesterday morning.’ The Germans are retreating all along the Front in face of the First, Third and Fourth British armies. It is not a question of a rout or a pursuit; we are simply pressing them hard and they are covering their withdrawal with a close-set screen of machine gun defences. We know there
Serious Rioting in Kiel
An article appeared in the Londonderry Sentinel on the situation in Kiel. ‘The Kieler Neuesten Nachrichten gave details of serious riots at Kiel on Sunday. Following a meeting in the drill square by the crew of the battleship
form Amsterdam, Wednesday
The following article also appeared in the Londonderry Sentinel. ‘During the rising in Kiel officers of the battleship Kaiser defended the German war flag with revolvers. However, they were overpowered by the crew, who hauled down the war flag and hoisted the red flag. Two officers, including the commander, were killed. Three of the four companies of infantry which had just arrived at Kiel immediately joined the movement, and the fourth was disarmed. Hussars sent from
Distinguished Flying Cross Awarded to Moville Man.
The MacNeece family lived at Castle Cary near Moville. Captain T.F.
Lieutenant William Foster
He was a son of Captain T.F. MacNeece of Castle Cary in County Donegal. Born in 1889, he enlisted in the Royal Kent Regiment and at the beginning of the First World
After the First World
Illness in Kilkenny Hits Local Newspaper
The Kilkenny Journal was badly affected by staff shortages with virtually all of the staff struck down. As a result, the management had to make the newspaper smaller.
Sporting Fixture Postponed
The hurling final between Wexford and Limerick was postponed ‘because of illness of some of the Wexford players.’
Funerals at Glasnevin Cemetery in Dublin
It was reported that before noon there had been fifty burials in the cemetery, many attributed to the influenza epidemic. At least forty burials were expected to take place the following day.
Revolutionary Council Established in Bavaria
Ultimatum by Social Democrats in Germany
German Social Democrats placed the following items as ‘demands ‘before the Reichstag.
‘Workers, Party comrades! The peace is secured-in a few hours the Armistice will take effect.
Let there be no rash acts now which will revive the spilling of blood that has ended on the battlefields! The Social Democratic Party will do its utmost to see that your demands are fulfilled.
For this purpose, the Executive Committee of the Social Democratic Party and the Social Democratic fraction have place the following demands before the Reichstag.
Lifting of the ban against meetings.
Directions to the police and military to use the utmost circumspection.
Abdication of the Kaiser and the Crown prince before Friday noon.
Strengthening of Social Democratic influence in the Government.
Reorganisation of the Prussian ministry to conform with the majority principle of the Reichstag.
If no satisfactory reply is received by Friday noon, The Social Democratic Party shall withdraw from the government.’
Anglo-French Statement of Aims in Syria and Mesopotamia
This statement was issued by the British Embassy in Washington.
‘The aim of France and Great Britain and in carrying on in the Near East the war let loose by German ambitions is the complete and final liberation of the people so long oppressed by the Turks and the establishment of governments and administrations deriving their authority from the initiative and the free choice of the native populations.
In view of flowing out this intention, France and Great Britain are agreed to encourage and help the establishment of native governments and administrations in Syria and Mesopotamia liberated by the Allies, and in the territories, they are now striving to
Far from seeking to force the populations of these countries any particular institution, France and Great Britain have no other concern than to ensure by their support and their active assistance the normal working of the governments and institutions which the populations shall have freely adopted, so as to secure just impartiality for all, and also to facilitate the economic development of the country in arousing and encouraging local initiative by the diffusion of instruction, and to put to an end discords which have too long been taken advantage by the Turkish side. Such is the role that the two Allied Governments claim for themselves in the liberated territories.’
Call for Increased Salaries for Doctors in Ireland
A report in the Cork Examiner and other newspapers made reference to a speech by a
The Capital’s Health Authorities Issue Positive Statement
A statement was issued by the health authorities in Dublin which declared that ‘the ‘flu epidemic is abating.’
Fear in County Waterford
In the community in
A Butcher’s Advertisement
A butcher placed the following advertisement in the Irish News. ‘Defy the ‘Flu. Finlay’s Meat Costs Less Than the Doctor.’
Orbituary in Local Paper
Thomas Bovaird served as a private in the Manitoba Regiment and he was killed on 8th November 1917. On the first anniversary of his death in 1918 his sister and brother-in-law Elizabeth and Richard Williams of 4 Kennedy Street had the following lines inserted in a local newspaper.
‘He sleeps not in his native land,
But under foreign skies;
Far away from those who loved him;
In a hero’s grave he lies.’
A Day of Political Turmoil in Germany, Kaiser Abdicates and Flees to Holland
Chancellor Max von Baden unilaterally announced the abdication of the Kaiser. From a
Two hours later from a balcony on the Reichstag, Philipp Scheidemann announced the creation of a Free Socialist Republic.
Revolution Spreads across Germany
Revolution was in the air as across the county revolutionary councils were established. In the capital
Diary Record of British Cabinet Meeting
The Chief of The Imperial General Staff Sir Henry Wilson recorded in his diary,’ Cabinet meeting tonight. L.G. ( Lloyd George ) read two telegrams from the Tiger ( Clemenceau) in which he described Foch’s interview with the Germans. The Tiger is afraid that Germany may collapse and
Kilkenny Hit by Spanish Flu
This town was one of the worst hit by influenza in 1918
Influenza in North Dublin Irish Times Calls for Medical Reform
The Irish Times reported that Howth in North Dublin was a centre for sickness, with several hundred ill.’ The newspaper went on to call for changes in the health system.’ There is
Influenza, Effects in County Meath and County Wicklow
An article in the Meath Chronicle reported on the effect on influenza on the railways. ‘In
Bray Urban District Council embarked on a plan to control the spread of influenza by disinfecting houses, cleaning lanes drains and sewers.
The chairman of Arklow Council made a statement about cleanliness in the town. He said that public thoroughfares needed cleaning up. Also, a local sewer needed to be cleared out immediately ‘as we cannot be too careful, for if the present epidemic goes ahead in the town we do not know where it will end.’ Attention had been drawn by local residents to an ashpit ‘which during the present time of sickness is dangerous and it should be removed.’
Influenza, Health Crisis in County Mayo
A report from Claremorris Union spoke about difficult conditions for health workers, with one doctor attending eight hundred cases over a short period of time.
Shortage of Coffins in the North West, many Families Wiped Out
A report carried by the Derry People and Donegal News said that in the region there was a shortage of coffins and hearses, with bodies mounting up in mortuaries and funeral homes. The paper also commented, ‘Several members of the same family are being buried in the same grave.’
Criticism by Strabane Urban District Council and a Doctor in Omagh
At a meeting of the council members were struck by the lack of initiative demonstrated by the Local Government Board during the epidemic.’ In other outbreaks,
Communications Disrupted in County Mayo
A report in the Mayo News spoke of communications difficulties in Claremorris. The clerk of Claremorris Union informed the Board of Guardians that ‘there has been great delay in telegraphing due to the epidemic. A wire sent from here to Tuam was delayed for four hours as there was only one man in Tuam to receive the message.’
Bray and County Wicklow, R.I.C. Statement
A report carried in the Wicklow People by the local R.I.C. referred to difficulties with health care. ‘The large number of fatal cases are due to inadequate hospital care and attendance and it is further proof that there is the need of better healthcare provision in the area.’
Derry Journal Sunday Schools Forced to Close
Due to influenza, many Sunday Schools across Ulster and in the city were forced to close’ in consequence of the prevalence of the malady.’
Doctors and Clergy Tend to the Sick and Dying in County Cork
In the Cork
Panic Reported in Sligo and Galway
There were reports from the two towns that many people were going to chemist ‘shops to purchase disinfectants.
St. Vincent de Paul Assists ‘flu Victims
It was reported in Freeman’s Journal that branches of the organisation across Ireland were ‘providing
Irish Volunteers and Cumann
na mBan Carry out Assistance
In the same
Loss of Wicklow Council Staff
Effects of Influenza in Tipperary
The Tipperary Star referred to ‘the ‘flu plague,’ and it went on to highlight the paper’s concern ‘with the terrible toll in Clonmel.’ With regard to the town of Tipperary itself, the newspaper reported that ‘in the town and district the plague has caused within the space of a few days five or six deaths.’
Cabinet Meeting, London, Churchill and the Fear of
At about this time in a post-conflict
A Local Man Loses His Life in the Great War
Robert H. Hall served as a lance corporal in the North Irish Horse.
This was signed at five o’clock in the morning. About a quarter of a million Irishmen had served in the Great War and over thirty-five thousand had paid the ultimate sacrifice.
Over one hundred thousand Scots had been killed, which represented 10% of the male population between the ages of sixteen and fifty. About a quarter of a million Irishmen had enlisted and about
German Condemnation of Harsh Terms
After signing the armistice document, the German representative Matthias Erzberger condemned the harshness of the terms. He declared, ‘A nation of seventy million can suffer, but it cannot die.’
Erzberger was never forgiven by the far right in Germany and an article declared,’ He may be as round as a bullet, but he is not
Reaction in Dublin
At the news of the
Czech Leader’s View
Commenting on the war, the Czech leader said,’ The war has turned Europe into a laboratory atop a vast graveyard.’
Last ‘Tommy’ to Be Killed in the Great War
At half past nine in the morning George Ellison was killed.
Last French Soldier to Be Killed in The Great War
Marshal Foch believed that the Germans were reluctant to sign the Armistice so he ordered an attack across the Meuse. Augustin Trebuchon was a messenger and was killed at 10.45, just fifteen minutes before the armistice came into place. In his hand was the message, ‘Muster at 11.30 for food.’
Last Soldier on Either Side to Be Killed
Henry Gunter served in an infantry division in the United States
Canadian Soldier Killed at 10.57
While on patrol, Canadian Private Lawrence Price had been involved in house searches. He was shot by a German sniper but despite the efforts of a young Belgian nurse he died at 10.57, the last soldier of the British Empire to be killed in the First World War.
The Armistice and Germany
Conditions of the armistice stated that ‘the areas on the left bank of the Rhine shall be administered by the local authorities, under the control of the occupation troops of the Allies and the United States Armies of Occupation. The American Expeditionary Force was under the command of General John Persing. About a quarter of a million American troops were soon based in part of Germany which had a local population of just under one million people. At about the same time, 50,000 American troops were sent to occupy Luxembourg.
The Armistice Reported in the New York Times
‘WITH THE AMERICAN ARMY IN FRANCE, Nov. 11. They stopped fighting at eleven o’clock this morning. In a twinkling, four years of killing and massacre stopped as if God had swept His omnipotent finger across the scene of world carnage and had cried ‘Enough.’
WITH THE BRITISH ARMIES IN FRANCE, Nov 11- ‘Last night, for the first time since August in the first year of the war, there was no light of gunfire in the sky no sudden stabs of flame through darkness, no spreading glow above black trees where for four years of nights human beings were smashed to death. The Fires of Hell have been put out.’
Irish Volunteers Raid on Cork Gaol
Denis McNelis was born in Glencolumbcille in County Donegal and was an electrical engineer by trade. In 1916 while working in Ford’s plant in Cork he enlisted in the Volunteers there. Two years later he was appointed an officer in Cork City Brigade. A party of R.I.C men were sent to arrest him and in a fierce gun
While awaiting trial a team of Irish Volunteers decided to get him out of prison. They successfully made their way to the front gate and there the rescue team made off in haste. They left Denis McNelis behind who fled the scene on
Polish Organisations for Independence
Polish organisations in the German Empire again put forward proposals in which they declare that they wish to create an independent Polish state.
Refection on the First World War
In Bill Gammage’s ‘Broken Years’, written in 1974, he reflects on the First World War. ‘There never was
Impact of United States Forces in the South-west Approaches
With support from ships and flying boats from the United States and the Royal Navy, over eighteen thousand ships and two million United States troops had been safely escorted through the Southern Approaches.
United States Flying Boats in Ireland
At the time of the Armistice, there were seven seaplanes based at Ture, which had taken part in sixty flights and had covered over 11,000 miles of ocean. At
In all of the flying boat bases in Ireland at the time of the Armistice were based forty-three seaplanes which had taken part in almost two hundred and fifty flights and had travelled almost 50,000 miles. Across
County Cork Towns Instigate Anti-Influenza Measures
Macroom Urban District Council set in motion’ very laudable and desirable measures in an attempt to mitigate the suffering and distress consequent upon the ravages of the influenza epidemic amongst the poorer classes.’
The chairman of the council assisted with the establishment of a fund to aid the destitute and sick. Sub-committees were formed and members visited different parts of the district, providing ‘suitable articles of dietary and physical attendance where whole families are incapacitated.’
County Wicklow Rent Collector Requests Leave of Absence
Independence Mission from
to Phillipines United States
The Philippine Legislature authorised the sending of a commission to the United States. The resolution read,’ The special task of the Commission during its stay in the United States will be endeavour by every means in its power to advance the excellent relations and mutual confidence now existing between the Americans and the Pilipino people and to encourage the further development of the commercial relations between both countries on a broad liberal and permanent foundation.’
Peace Poem in Local Newspaper
The flowing poem was published in the Londonderry Sentinel, entitled ‘Peace.’
‘Hark it comes the news of Peace!
Glad tidings borne with lightning speed.
O’er land Neath ocean’s rolling flood,
To island homes made glad, indeed.
And silence falls, for hearts are full,
And tears can hardly be restrained;
For joy has depths. As well as grief
And tears in either are contained.
And from the old cathedral tower
The bells clang out with joyful sound,
Sending the news of peace assured
On wings of wind the country round.
Thank God for peace! And what of those
Home victims of wars sorry spoil.
Whose treasures lie, like buried gold
Of priceless worth in France’s soil.
My comfort come to them, and peace-
Such comfort as they only know
Who cast their case on God –and peace
That Christ himself can still bestow.
And as we bless His Holy name,
For those departed ones we love,
We ask for grace to follow them
In the good fight and conquerors prove.
So, when the day of Peace shall come,
When earth’s long struggle shall be o’er,
We and our loved and lost may meet
In happiness-to part no more!’
Damage to Culmore Road, Construction of American Base in County Donegal
The Londonderry Sentinel reported on the effect that construction traffic was having on the Culmore Road.’Owing to the extraordinary traffic between Derry City and the U.S.A. Naval Service Depot at Ture, the first-class road between the city boundary and the county boundary on the Derry-Moville road has been seriously damaged through its entire length which is 1370 perches. The extra traffic has consisted mainly of heavy motor vessels conveying construction materials of various kinds for use at the Air Service Depot. The County Surveyor advised that the rural council should be authorised to spend £50 on temporary repairs.’
Some Wartime Restrictions Withdrawn
With the ending of the war, several wartime restrictions were withdrawn. ‘Masks on street lights may be removed, normal shading of lights in houses and shops may be withdrawn. Military authorities will give permission for displays of fireworks and bonfires. The restrictions on ringing of bells and the striking of public lights at night are withdrawn.’
General Election Called in
Lloyd George called a general election to be held in December. He sought a mandate to punish the Kaiser personally and to make Germany pay for the whole cost of the war. Known as the ‘Khaki Election,’ he said that he sought to make Britain a happier place,’ a country fit for heroes to live in.’
Poland a Council of Peoples’ Representatives
This body held a meeting at the end of which they published a programme for democratic and social government.
Influenza and the Young
An article in the Cork Examiner noted, ‘This is one of the peculiar features of the epidemic, its ability to destroy youth in its full bloom.’
Medics under Strain in Dublin
It was reported in the Irish Times that doctors and nurses ‘have their hands full in this formidable epidemic carried off two thousand four hundred and eighteen, resulting in the highest death rates since registration began. ‘Cork Street Hospital was the worst affected.
Donegal Priests Dedication to his Congregation
About this time Father Phil Boyle served as parish priest in Glencolumbcille. He attended to ill parishioners across his parish, cycling in the morning as far as Malinbeg to anoint the dying. He would return at about midday to his home bathed in sweat to change his clothes. In the afternoon he would be off to another part of his parish.
Local Man Lose His Life in the Great War
Marcus E Dinsmore served as a captain in the Royal Army Medical Corps.
United States Ships in Escort Duty in St. George’s Channel
The United States
British Soldiers Mutiny in England
At Shoreham, soldiers marched out of camp after a major had pushed a man up to his thighs in mud.
Cases of Influenza in Sligo Town
Freeman’s Journal reported that cases of influenza had been reported in the town. One week later over one hundred cases were reported. The paper also reported that ether was now a second wave of influenza spreading from towns to villages and rural areas across Ireland.
A Local Man Loses His Life in the Great War
John Doherty served as a private in the Royal Army Medical Corps.
Two years before the end of the war the National Association of Discharged Sailors and Soldiers Association was established in Blackburn after a meeting and was initially linked with the labour and trade union movement. The NADSS put forward a number of candidates in the General Election. Four groups associated with ex-servicemen came together in May 1921 to form the Royal British Legion.
Immediate Military Response to Shoreham Mutiny
Following the humiliating treatment of a soldier at Shoreham which was followed by soldiers marching out of the camp, a soldier from North Shields wrote about what happened next. ‘The day after the walk-out the general came down and formed us into three sides of a square. He drove his motor car into the centre, read the Army Act out and then invited any man to step out and go to work if he liked. I myself was made to fall out on the right by myself. You can imagine my feelings, as being an old soldier of over twenty year’s service. Of course, I knew the consequences of my
Fearing rebellion by soldiers at home and on the continent, the military authorities acted immediately. Perceived ringleaders were arrested and if this did not control the situation they were demobbed. The aim of this was to strengthen the power of the authorities of those remaining soldiers. At the same
The War-Time Coalition
The Labour Party left the government.
Masaryk Elected President of Czecholslavakia
While in New York, Thomas Masaryk was elected president.
The First Prisoners of War Return to France
The first of these arrived at the French port of Calais.
Attendances at Church of Ireland Services
In the Church of Ireland
Influenza in Cork, Pressure in Hospitals
A report in the Cork Examiner highlighted the pressure that there was in the health service in the county. The governor of Clonmel Borstal was asked to explain to the General Prisons Board why the borstal was being used as an aid centre. He explained that ‘upwards of two thousand inhabitants were incapacitated by the influenza epidemic, in many instances among the poorer classes’ He went on to say that ‘whole families have been laid low many from want of nourishment and fuel. The medical men cannot get around all the cases. Every nurse available is at work and the deaths have been considerable. Local relief works have saved the lives of several who had neither food or
County Donegal Woman Recalls Influenza
In 2003 an elderly resident of Lifford recalled the effects of influenza on the town. In the interview, Molly Deery said,’ It hit very hard and the people were very fearful and frightened of it. You see the people had no idea what caused it. I am not sure of the exact number of victims as we didn’t read the papers in
Conflict Looms in the Baltic
The government in Estonia called for voluntary mobilisation as the country’s leaders were fearful of a Russian invasion.
Influenza in County Galway
An article in the Connacht Tribune said that ‘around
Influenza in Derry
In an article in the Derry
Local Store Announces ‘Great Victory Sale’
Austin’s in the Diamond announced the start of what was described as its ‘Great Victory Sale.’ The advertisement declared. ‘The war is over; the Victory is won. We can with pleasure look every man straight in the face because we have done our duty and the best in our power to win it.’
Drastic Measures by
Board of Guardians in County Roscommon
Support for Influenza Victims in County Tipperary
Fear of Contagion from Influenza
A report in the Cork County Eagle and Munster Advertiser claimed that people in the area were shunning the sick and avoiding going to the wake of an ill relative or neighbour. In County
‘People Will Remember The ‘Flu’
A writer in the Tipperary Star claimed that the outbreak of influenza would be remembered for a long time. ‘By all those who lived through it, the plague will long be remembered, but particularly by those who on its account mourn the loss of those who were nearest and dearest to them in life.’
The Wealthy and Medical Care
The Wicklow People reported that in the locality ‘the middle and upper classes have the resources to pay for immediate care and attention with the best medical skill and the chances of recovery are maximised through medical skill and devoted care.’ In the Meath
Religious Retreat Cancelled in County Sligo
Reported in Freeman’s Journal, a religious retreat at the village of Keash near the town of Ballymote was cancelled ‘owing to the epidemic making its appearance.’
Dedication to the ill and Dying in Castlebar, Westport and Tipperary
A report in the Mayo News paid tribute to the pastoral care of priests in the area.
Political Event called off in County Cavan
A meeting in East Cavan of the United Irish League Convention was postponed ‘owing to the number of deaths in the district and the prevailing malady in the constituency.’
Enniscorthy Family, Four Children perish in A Few Days
A man called Michael Dempsey returned home from the funerals of two daughters to discover that a son had just died, all as a result of influenza. Three days later he lost another son to the epidemic.
Doctors Report on the Health Crisis
Health Difficulties in Wexford
The People reported a statement from the clerk of New Ross Board of Guardians. ‘The number on the sick list is the largest I have ever known there. ‘The newspaper estimated that there were about one and a half thousand cases in the county.
The Effect of Influenza and the Volunteers
Thomas Treacy recalled that about this time the impact of influenza was noted in volunteer activity. ‘When the Big ‘Flu was raging in the country, there was practically no volunteer work done while the epidemic lasted. Volunteers who died were given military funerals.’
Death of Leading Volunteer in County Wicklow
The passing of James Sinnott due to influenza was reported in the Wicklow News. He had served as the drill instructor in the Wicklow Corps. He had been involved when the Volunteers were established here. The paper also reported that ‘other Volunteers suffered long-term physical damage.’
Influenza Victims in Galway
It was reported that in the village of Barna, now in the suburbs of Galway, that there were sixteen funerals in the space of ten days.
Letters to and From Republican Prisoners on Conditions
A lady called Dora French wrote to Peter Hourihane who was imprisoned in Birmingham. ‘Do not get the ‘flu, we can think and talk of nothing else here now, and the Gaels have suffered badly’.
From Usk Prison in Wales, Tadg Barry wrote,’ There are nine of us
The Epidemic in County Cork
The Cork Examiner noted that in the town of Macroom ‘young men in the vigour of early manhood were stricken down, shrouding many a homestead in darkness and desolation.’ It continued,’ the past fortnight has been one of all-
Social Breakdown across Ireland
In fear of the spread of influenza, wakes were banned in places as far apart as Mitchelstown, Newry and Enniscorthy.
Surrendered German Fleet Sails into
After negotiations, the German fleet which was comprised of nine battleships, five battlecruisers, seven cruisers and fifty destroyers sailed into the North Sea for a rendezvous of surrender with the Royal Navy.
Victory Event in the Guildhall
The Londonderry Sentinel carried an advertisement for a social occasion in the Guildhall. It said,’ Don’t forget the great victory whist drive and dance in the Guildhall.
Londonderry Corporation Meeting and Influenza
At a meeting of the
First German U-boat Surrenders
Surrendered German submarines began to assemble at Harwich. Thirty-nine surrendered here.
Buncrana, Assistance for the Needy
It was reported in the Derry Journal that ‘when fuel and milk for the poor were almost
Londonderry Corporation, Call for Action
At a meeting of the corporation, a doctor proposed that the necessary steps should be taken to prepare rooms in Gwyn’s Institution for the reception and treatment of influenza cases.’
Influenza Crisis in Wexford Town
In a report in The
Cork Examiner Reports on Priest’s Statement
In Mitchelstown Rev. Ahern reprimanded his congregation for lack of consideration of those suffering in the epidemic.’ Some of the things I have heard have shown anything but Christian feeling, and even made me feel ashamed of being an Irishman.’
HMS Olympic Escorted Back to Home Waters
The Olympic was escorted to Southampton by the Queenstown- based USS Rowan, USS Wilkes, USS Beale.
German Fleet Sails into British Waters to Surrender
Almost two hundred ships of the Royal Navy, accompanied by five ships from the United States and three French warships met the surrendered German fleet. The event was witnessed by a reporter from the Times as the German ships approached. ‘Between the lines came the Germans, led by the Cardiff, and looking like all the world like a school of Leviathans led by a minnow. Over them flew a British naval airship. First came the cruisers, led by the Seydlitz.
The correspondent continued,’ The
Message off the Isle of May to German Fleet
A message was sent by Sir David Beatty, Commander-in-Chief of the Grand Fleet to the German Navy.’ The German flag will be hauled down at sunset today and will not be hoisted again without permission.’
Women to Be Elected to Parliament
An act was passed in the Commons which gave women over the age of twenty-one to stand for Parliament.
Influenza, a Link with Returning Soldiers?
In the Irish Independent,
Kilkenny People, Trade Disruption
Newspaper Obituaries on Influenza Victims
The King’s County Chronicle and many papers across Ireland had obituaries to those who had succumbed to influenza. Words used included, time lost,’ promise unfulfilled,’ premature’, ‘untimely,’ at an early age,’ barely in the prime of life,’ unexpected tidings,’ painful surprise.’
Royal Naval Charity Event at Buncrana
The Londonderry Sentinel carried an advertisement for a ‘fancy fair ‘in the town. It was to be in aid of the ‘Naval and
Rank and File
The local newspaper published information on war casualties in this column.
Lance Corporal P.Doherty who had served in the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers had died in hospital in France from wounds received in action. His wife resides in Bridge Street.
The Palace Picture House, Advertisement on Influenza
The following advertisement appeared in the Londonderry Sentinel. ‘The management of the Picture House have taken every precaution to obliviate any danger there might be in consequence of the now happily decreasing illness in the city. The Palace, in addition to being admirably
Concern over Walls Daubed with Paint
At a time of political tension in the city, it was noted in the Londonderry Sentinel that political slogans had been painted on a wall in the city. The article declared,’ At the stone steps leading to Messrs. Jones and Lowther’s Laundry, on the gable wall of the Alexander Memorial Cottages and on a wall at Stanley’s Walk, walls have been daubed with paint setting forth Sinn Fein motives. The silly method of injuring property will be condemned by respectable citizens. The police are understood to have traced the source from which the paint was obtained.’
Local Great War Fatality
John Gordon served as a private in the Machine Gun Corps.
Victims of Leinster Tragedy Laid To
Two victims of the sinking of the Leinster were washed up on the Scottish coast. Lieutenant George Crawford from Foxrock in County Dublin who had served in the Royal Dublin Fusiliers was buried in
Medics in Belfast Unclear About Influenza
A report in the Belfast Telegraph reported on the views of doctors in the city.’ It is a remarkable fact which is puzzling the medical profession, that although most of the patients die as a result of pneumonia, the symptoms of the disease generally do not develop until after death.’
Influenza Outbreak in a County Sligo Town
Report from a County Galway Town
Flu Victim’s Funerals Being Shunned
The Derry People and Donegal News and other Irish newspapers carried reports that some of the funerals of ‘flu victims were being shunned. However, there were still some very large funerals, with Irish society acknowledging and responding to death and grief, underlying the Irish respect for the dead.’
Dublin City’s Influenza’s ‘Hotspots.’
Kingstown Hospital Faces Heavy Demand for Services
St. Michael’s Hospital was put under enormous stress as it treated many influenza victims. One result of this was that the hospital was put heavily in debt. The Royal City of Dublin Hospital would not turn away influenza victims and was soon £12,000 in debt.
A Time of Sadness
The Tipperary Star reported that with the spread of influenza it was’ a time of sadness and emptiness. Towns had a mournful appearance, houses were closed up due to the death of an occupant or in sympathy with relatives.’
Postal Deliveries Suspended in Sligo
The Sligo Champion said that because of influenza among staff that ‘the temporary suspension of deliveries was unavoidable. ‘
Earl of Kenmare Calls for Suspension of Petty Sessions
Valentine Charles Browne, 5th Earl of Kenmare, Lord Lieutenant for County Kerry wrote to Dublin Castle advocating the suspension of petty sessions in his locality. His letter was published in the Connacht Tribune. ‘People are coming into the courts fresh from houses infected with the ‘flu. There is a danger of this spreading the disease. I will be glad to know if you would let me know if it is possible to arrange to suspend the petty sessions throughout this county until the end of the year.’
County Kildare, Volunteer Activity report by R.I.C.
A police report said that there had been a number of funerals for members of the Irish Volunteers. It continued,’ There has been no activity noticed among the Irish Volunteers at all, with most of its members ill with ’flu.’
Gaelic League and Influenza
An article in the Roscommon Herald reported that ‘the Gaelic League has suffered severely because of influenza.’
Fatalities in County Carlow Town
It had been reported that to date in November there had been thirty deaths in the town of
The Lancet, Medical Report on Influenza
The Lancet is a weekly general medical journal founded in 1823 and it is one of the oldest and best-known medical journals. Doctors who reported results from
‘flu Victims Ostracised in Wexford
It was reported that in Wexford’ in many country cabins whole families have been prostrated and the neighbours shun them, being fearful lest they become infected. Wexford Town faced a similar situation where ‘everyone appears to be afraid of catching the contagion.’
Reports of Negative Response from County Galway Town Commissioners
In was reported in the Connacht Tribune that the only response from the commissioners in Loughrea was ‘to pass a motion of sympathy with the families of victims of the awful scourge which has brought grief and misery to so many houses in the country.’
Advertisement for Support for Returning Prisoners of War
In the Londonderry
Lily E. Anderson, Victoria Park
Graves to the Fallen
The Secretary of the War Office in
Another Military Cross for a Londonderry Man
It was reported in the Londonderry Sentinel that Captain R.G.Craig the eldest son of Mrs Craig of Asylum Road has been awarded the Military Cross for services in Palestine. Writing home, Captain Craig described spending six weeks in trenches in the Jordan Valley and then ‘going out over the top for the capture of a strong Turkish redoubt, El Baghalat.’ Two days later his regiment captured in the
A Doctor’s Comments on Influenza in Dublin
Loss of Republican Activists Due to Influenza
John Cowell who had been a medical student at the time of the Easter
The Last Surrender of German Forces
General Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck surrendered to the British in
War Cabinet on Seeking Retribution from Germany
At a meeting of this
Irish Regiment in France; Fear of Influenza
The 1st Battalion of the Irish Guards
Official Abdication of the Kaiser
Kaiser Wilheim signed documents making his abduction official.
Russian Invasion of Estonia
A relatively small Russian army of under ten thousand troops invaded Estonia.
Political Views in Crumlin Road
Family Wiped Out in King’ s County, A Doctor Replies to Criticism
A report in the King’s County Chronicle reported that in the town of Durrow ‘an entire family succumbed, consisting of father, son and daughter.’ The paper also published a letter in response to a claim of negligence from a patient’s family. ‘It is difficult for persons unacquainted with the conditions of the recent ‘flu epidemic to realise the enormity of the work thrown on medical men. My ordinary work was during that time, increased twenty-fold. I worked my best and longest and if anybody had not received the full attention they were entitled to in normal times I cannot help it.’
Unusual Items Requisitioned in County Galway
Fear of Influenza, Unusual Place for Inquest
Derry Journal, Reports from County Fermanagh, County Donegal
Reported in the Derry Journal, a spokesman for the Royal Irish Constabulary in County Fermanagh said that ‘Enniskillen and rural areas are hit pretty hard by the ‘flu epidemic and there are numerous deaths. In parts of County Donegal there were ‘near famine conditions’ and ‘Arranmore was in a bad way.’
journal and other Irish Papers report of Shortage of Doctors
The ‘Journal’ reported that ‘nine out of ten districts had only one doctor at a time and this was the case across Ireland. ‘Papers from locations such as Mayo, Tipperary and Kerry reported on
The Medical Press on Influenza
In an article in this medical
Influenza in Longford
A report in the Roscommon Herald said that the town of Longford had miserable cases but that the mortality rate was lower because of relief work.
Achill Island Attempts to Alleviate the Situation
Father Martin Colleran was born in 1856 and in addition to his clerical duties expressed concern for his local community. In the 1890s and in 1907 he contacted the government in Dublin to draw attention to the danger of famine in County Mayo
Facing an epidemic in Achill, it was reported in the Mayo News that Father Colleran established a special sanitary committee in an attempt to combat the spread of influenza.
Belfast Business Affected by Influenza Outbreak
In the Down Recorder, a column spoke of stories of men in Belfast ‘going to their place of business and being taken ill on the way and being compelled to return home.’ It also said that ‘some large businesses had fully half of their employee laid up.’
Entertainment Locations Affected in Sligo
The Sligo Champion reported on entertainment venues in the town of Sligo. ‘All the entertainments appear to be suffering as a result of the epidemic which has been working havoc amongst the community.’
Revival of Gaelic under Threat
A report in the Mayo News claimed that locals were commenting that the ‘Gaelic League was suffering damage to its revival.’
Castlebar Welcomes Fewer Influenza Cases in Locality
At the local petty
Advertisements of thanks
Advertisements were placed in the Mayo News which expressed thanks from a number of individuals ‘to thank the Lord for ensuring that families remained safe and recovered from the ‘flu.’
Fear of Communism
The New York Times declared,’ The most pressing post-war question is how far Europe is infected with Bolshevism.’
Churchill’s Fear of Communism
In a speech in Dundee, Winston Churchill told his audience, ‘Civilisation is being extinguished in Russia by Bolshevists who hop and caper like troops of ferocious baboons, amid the ruins of cities and the corpses of the victims.’
Across Europe there were problems. The new rulers in Russia sought revolution across the world, Germany and Austria had revolutionaries on the streets. There were revolutionaries on the streets with food shortages and there was the possibility of famine. In